Graduate Student Handbook

Overview

This handbook has been adopted by the Field of Classics for the use of students in the MA and PhD programs. Faculty, staff, and students have contributed to its conception and composition; their efforts are gratefully acknowledged. The Graduate Handbook is to be revised annually, at the spring meeting of the Field. Please send comments, queries, and requests to Graduate Field Assistant Tracey Becken (tbs46@cornell.edu), who will compile for annual review.

The Field of Classics is administered by the Graduate School of Cornell University and governed by the Code of Legislation of the Graduate Faculty.   
 
The Field of Classics awards two degrees: an MA, and a PhD.

The Bridge MA is intended to support talented scholars in Classics and to enhance the diversity of the discipline. One student is admitted per year with full fellowship support (one academic year and two summers). This fellow will have the opportunity to work closely with faculty and PhD students in Classics, while simultaneously developing a program of independent research. The fellowship is specifically tailored for students with a bachelor’s degree or equivalent who may wish to pursue doctoral study in Classics or a related discipline.

The PhD program fully promotes an interdisciplinary approach to the ancient world. All admitted students are guaranteed funding (fellowship or TAship) for six academic years and five summers. We offer all students an opportunity to develop a comprehensive course of study within one of our six concentrations: ancient history, ancient philosophy, classical archaeology and art, classical literature and philology, Greek and Latin languages and linguistics, and interdisciplinary Classics.

Ancient history at Cornell University can be studied either in the Field of History or in the Field of Classics. The two Fields cooperate in teaching and supervising graduate students and strongly encourage those in one Field to strengthen their preparation by relevant work in the other. In the Field of Classics, the concentration in Ancient History aims at training scholars who will be ready both to engage in cutting-edge research in history and to teach about the Greek and Roman world, including the literature and the languages.

The study of ancient philosophy at Cornell University is administered jointly by the Fields of Classics and Philosophy, and members of the two Fields cooperate in teaching and supervising graduate students. The program aims at training productive scholars and effective teachers of ancient philosophy who will also be well-rounded classicists and philosophers. The concentration is designed differently for students in the two Fields, but it strongly encourages those in one Field to strengthen their preparation by relevant work in the other.

The Concentration in classical archaeology and art promotes cutting-edge archaeological and/or art-historical research and teaching about the Greek and Roman worlds (including Cyprus and the wider Mediterranean area) in any period from prehistory through to Late Antiquity. Candidates are trained to be qualified for academic positions with an archaeological or art historical focus in Departments of Classics, History of Art, or Anthropology, as well as in interdisciplinary Archaeology Programs concerned with the ancient world and complex societies. The Cornell program offers a strong institutional setting, combining a long pedigree in outstanding Classical scholarship, cognate departments and courses in History of Art, Near Eastern Studies, and Anthropology, and world-leading science departments for those seeking to develop inter-disciplinary projects.

The concentration in classical philology and literature, focusing on Greek and Latin languages and literature, is the most frequently chosen, and provides students with the opportunity to follow a traditional training in philology and textual criticism, to explore Classical literature in the light of modern literary critical methodology, or to do both.

Graduate applicants to the Field of Classics whose primary interest is in the Greek and Latin languages per se may choose to pursue the concentration in Greek and Latin languages and linguistics. The aim of this concentration is to acquire a broad background in general linguistics; Greek, Latin, and Indo-European linguistics; and Greek and Latin philology.

Interdisciplinary Classics is a concentration that promotes an interdisciplinary approach to the ancient world by training students in three different disciplines of Classics through course work and reading lists. It encourages students to make new connections between areas that have been traditionally distinct, bringing together, e.g., epigraphy, science, art history, history, philosophy, literature, and classical reception.

General Requirements

The general requirements for receipt of the Bridge MA are:

  • a minimum of 32 credits;
  • a minimum of 6 courses at the 6000 level or higher;
  • a thesis; and,
  • successful completion of the MA oral exam.
     

The general requirements for receipt of the PhD are:

  • at least three years of residence;
  • satisfactory performance on the “Q” Examination, by the end of the fourth semester (i.e., by the end of May);
  • satisfactory completion of coursework as required by the individual concentration;
  • completion of two research papers (i.e., original contributions that could be presented to conferences or eventually submitted for publication) by the time of the “A” Examination;
  • satisfactory completion of the “A” Examination, before the end of the sixth semester (i.e., by the end of May);
  • presentation of a dissertation prospectus: to the Special Committee within the first three weeks of the seventh semester, and to the field during the eighth semester;
  • satisfactory performance on two Modern Language Examinations (one of these must have been passed by the end of the sixth semester, and the other by the end of the eighth semester);
  • presentation and public oral defense (“B” Examination) of a doctoral thesis; and,
  • submission of the approved doctoral thesis to the Graduate School.

Coursework

Cornell’s Satisfactory Academic Progress policy stipulates that students in research degrees must maintain a minimum GPA of 2.25 to be in good academic standing or to be eligible for federal loans. If a student receives an Incomplete, the Graduate School does not allow the grade to be changed after one year; individual instructors may set earlier deadlines for conversion of an Incomplete to a grade. Incompletes and audited classes do not count toward required coursework.

Faculty in the Field of Classics assign the full range of available letter grades. A mark of B+ or lower signals that performance did not meet expectations of a graduate student; please discuss with your adviser. An A- signals that performance was acceptable but that substantial room for improvement remains. An A signals performance fully commensurate with expectations of a graduate student. An A+ is to be awarded only in extraordinary cases (e.g., if coursework resulted in original research of publishable quality).

For the Bridge MA, the six courses at the 6000 level or higher must include the following:

  • one course at the 6000 level or higher in Latin Language;
  • one course at the 6000 level or higher in Greek Language; and,
  • two courses at the 6000 level or higher in Classics.

 

Distribution requirements for the PhD vary by concentration.

For the concentration in ancient history, minimum course work will be distributed as follows:

  • four 6000- or 7000-level courses in ancient history;
  • two 6000- or 7000-level courses in ancient historiography;
  • four 6000- or 7000-level courses in classical literature and philology (of which one may be in ancient philosophy or linguistics);
  • three 6000- or 7000-level courses in archaeology, epigraphy and numismatics, of which two must be in either archaeology or epigraphy; and,
  • two 6000- or 7000-level courses in areas of history other than Ancient Greece and Rome.

 

For the concentration in ancient philosophy, minimum course work will be distributed as follows:

  • nine 6000- or 7000-level Classics courses;
  • LATIN 6216 (Advanced Latin Prose Composition) or GREEK 6116 (Advanced Greek Composition); and,
  • an additional four 6000-7000 level courses chosen in consultation with the student’s Special Committee.

Students will be expected to have some knowledge of an area of philosophy other than Ancient Philosophy. Such knowledge may be demonstrated by the completion of at least one course in Philosophy approved by the student’s Special Committee.

For the concentration in classical archaeology and art, minimum coursework will be distributed as follows:

  • CLASS 7700 (CIAMS Core Seminar in Archaeological Theory and Method) or approved equivalent;
  • four 6000- or 7000-level courses in classical archaeology and art;
  • four 6000- or 7000-level courses in archaeology or art of other areas or periods, or in a related discipline; and,
  • four 6000- or 7000-level courses in classical literature and philology or in ancient history.

Note: A documented eight-week minimum of fieldwork must be completed before the “B” Examination.

Note that students may become members of the Cornell Institute of Archaeology and Materials Studies (CIAMS) by taking ARKEO 6100, “The Craft of Archaeology,” which is a 1 credit professionalization seminar. Benefits of membership include eligibility to apply for CIAMS summer funding and research funding, and eligibility to apply for the CIAMS Assistant Directorship, a full graduate assistantship typically reserved for senior archaeology PhD students.

For the concentration in classical literature and philology, the minimum number of required courses is fourteen, with the following distribution:

  • twelve 6000- or 7000-level Classics courses, in any combination;
  • LATIN 6216 (Advanced Latin Prose Composition) or GREEK 6116 (Advanced Greek Composition); and,
  • one historical or comparative grammar course.

For the concentration in Greek and Latin language and linguistics, minimum course work will be distributed as follows:

  • five 6000- or 7000- level non-linguistic Classics courses, of which at least four should be in Greek and/or Latin literature;
  • LATIN 6216 (Advanced Latin Prose Composition) or GREEK 6116 (Advanced Greek Composition);
  • three courses chosen from the following (or committee-approved alternatives): Greek Comparative Grammar (GREEK 7411/LING 6451), Latin Comparative Grammar (LATIN 7452/LING 6452), Greek Dialects (GREEK 7455/LING 6455), Archaic Latin (LATIN 7456/LING 6456), Homeric Philology (GREEK 7457/LING 6457);
  • Introduction to IE Linguistics (LING 6261) and Indo-European Workshop (LING 6635); and,
  • one semester of introductory phonological theory (LING 6401) and one of syntactic theory (LING 6403).

Note: Students need to have basic competencies in Sanskrit (an equivalent to two semesters).

For the concentration in interdisciplinary Classics, minimum coursework will be distributed as follows:

  • a total of nine 6000- or 7000-level courses in three different disciplines of Classics (history, archaeology, philosophy, art history, Greek and Latin lit., linguistics), with six courses in the first discipline, three courses in the second discipline, and three courses in the third discipline; and,
  • three 6000- or 7000-level courses NOT in (or cross-listed with) Classics, carefully chosen in discussion with the student’s committee.

Examinations

The MA Examination: the Graduate Faculty requires research master’s students writing a thesis to take a final examination upon completion of all degree requirements, no earlier than one month before completion of the minimum registration requirement (Code F.1.a.).

The “Q” Examination is to be taken by the end of the fourth semester (i.e., by the end of May). This examination is administered by the Field and is designed to demonstrate the level of proficiency in the ancient language(s) required by the individual concentration and/or test progress on the reading list. “Q” examinations may only be taken once. The Director of Graduate Studies (DGS) determines the outcome of the exam, in consultation with faculty in the relevant concentrations. Students will be notified of exam results by email within one week of taking the exam. For reading lists and detailed guidelines for each concentration, see the Appendix.

  • In ancient history, ancient philosophy, and classical literature and philology, the “Q” Examination is a written examination designed to examine knowledge of the reading list (appendix) and to demonstrate a high level of proficiency in Greek and Latin.
  • In classical archaeology and art, the “Q” Examination is designed to demonstrate a good level of competence in the discipline. This written examination is based on the Classical Archaeology and Art Reading List (appendix).
  • In Greek and Latin languages and linguistics, the “Q” Examination is a written examination designed to examine knowledge of the Greek and Latin Linguistics Reading List (appendix) and to demonstrate a high level of proficiency in Greek and Latin.
  • In interdisciplinary Classics, the “Q” Examination is a written examination designed to examine knowledge of a reading list combining the capsule lists (appendix) from three concentrations.
     

The “A” Examination is to be taken before the end of the sixth semester (i.e., by the end of May). The “A” Examinations may only be taken once. This examination is administered by the student’s Special Committee. The “A” Examination is a comprehensive general examination covering the authors, fields, and subjects chosen by students and their Special Committees. These usually comprise three areas distributed between major and minor areas as required by the individual concentration:

In ancient history, the two major areas for purposes of the “A” Examination are Greek History and Roman History. The third, or minor, area will be chosen in consultation with the Special Committee; the Field recommends a combined minor area in Greek and Latin literature.

In ancient philosophy, for purposes of the “A” Examination, Ancient Philosophy will be the major area of study, and Greek Literature and Latin Literature the minor areas. The readings for the major and minor areas will be defined by the student and the Special Committee and will reflect the student’s interests and needs.

In classical archaeology and art, the “A” Examination will comprise one major area, which must be a topic in Classical Archaeology or Ancient Art History, and two minor areas, one of which must be in either Greek or Latin philology and literature. The field suggests that the requirement of a minor in either Greek or Latin philology and literature can be fulfilled by taking a 7000-level literature seminar, with the final paper being accepted as the paper for the minor.

In classical literature and philology, for purposes of the “A” Examination, the two major areas must be Greek Literature and Latin Literature. The third, or minor, area will be chosen in consultation with the Special Committee.

In Greek and Latin languages and linguistics, the Special Committee should include at least one member of the Field of Classics who is also a member of the Field of Linguistics and two additional members of the Field of Classics. The “A” Examination will have two parts: (a) a written examination in three areas, one of which must be Greek and Latin linguistics. The Field recommends that the other two be either Greek literature and Latin literature or Indo-European linguistics and Greek or Latin literature; (b) an oral examination that will follow up on the questions asked in the written portion.

In interdisciplinary Classics, the “A” Examination will comprise one major area and two minor areas representing three different disciplines.

The Modern Language Examinations are written examinations administered by the Field. They may be taken as often as once per semester and re-taken as required. The DGS determines the outcome of the exam. All students must demonstrate reading knowledge of (a) German and (b) French or Italian. One of these modern language examinations must have been passed by the end of the student’s third year, and the second by the end of the fourth year. Modern language exams may be taken as often as once per semester and re-taken as required.

The Classical Language Examination will be taken by the end of their sixth semester (i.e. by the end of May), by concentrators in classical art and archaeology and interdisciplinary Classics. The DGS determines the outcome of the exam, in consultation with faculty in the relevant concentrations. The classical language examination may be taken as often as once per year and re-taken as required.

In classical art and archaeology, the classical language examination is a sight translation exam of passages in one language drawn from the Reading List for the Concentration in Classical Archaeology and Art (appendix).

In interdisciplinary Classics, the Classical Language Examination is a sight translation exam of passages in one language drawn from the Classics Reading List (appendix).

All doctoral students take a Final Examination (the “B” Exam, which is the oral defense of the dissertation) upon completion of all requirements for the degree, no earlier than one month before completion of the minimum registration requirement (Code F.1.d.).

Milestones: Thesis and Dissertation

For the Bridge MA, the first summer will be dedicated to foundational work in the two languages, with tutoring from advanced PhD students or other instructors. Students will then focus on coursework and develop a thesis proposal during the fall and spring semesters. No later than the first day of spring semester, students must submit to their Special Committee a short (maximum 4 pages) proposal detailing the focus of their thesis.

During the second summer, students will write and defend the thesis and receive an MA upon completion. The final thesis for the MA in Classics should present a piece of original research. It should not exceed 30 pages including tables, figures, bibliography and notes (using standard formatting in accordance with graduate school requirements). It should be similar in quality and scale to articles published in professional journals.

Alternatively, students who demonstrate exceptional potential for doctoral study may be invited to transfer to the PhD program upon completion of the second semester.

For the PhD, upon completion of the “A” Examination, the student’s Special Committee will select the format of the dissertation prospectus and determine its adequacy. It will usually take the form of a preliminary description of the proposed dissertation that delineates what topic and area the dissertation will explore, what approach will be taken to the topic, and why this topic and area merit such exploration. Within the first three weeks of their seventh semester (i.e., beginning of Fall of their fourth year), students will present to their committee the agreed elements of their prospectus. During the second term of the fourth year, students will present a dissertation prospectus to the Field. During the second semester of the fifth year, students will present a colloquium detailing progress on the dissertation and plans for its completion in the following year (“sixth-year colloquium”).

Special Committees

All students are assigned the DGS as temporary chair upon matriculation.

Students in the Bridge MA should form a Special Committee of two members (a Chair and a Minor Member) by the end of the first semester. Both members should be in the Graduate Field of Classics.

Students in the PhD should form a Special Committee (a Chair and two Minor Members) by the end of the second semester. Two or more of these members should be in the Graduate Field of Classics. Additional requirements are set by the individual concentrations (see above under the “A” examination).

Required Training

The Graduate Faculty requires all research degree students, both master’s and doctoral, to complete training in responsible conduct of research, including authorship, peer review and avoidance and consequences of research misconduct. This training is administered through the Cornell Office of Research Integrity and Assurance (ORIA) and must be completed before the end of the second semester (Code E.2.a.).

All students planning to teach Latin should take Latin 7201 (Latin for Teachers of Latin). Focusing on the language itself, this course is a systematic treatment of the phonological, morphological and syntactic structure of Classical Latin intended to give prospective teachers of the language additional tools for explaining its forms and constructions to students in the elementary course. It has three parts: (1) Why certain apparent irregularities of individual forms and paradigms are really regular; (2) Hints on how to present various paradigms and constructions to beginners; and, (3) Practice in teaching parts of Latin morphology and syntax to a class of beginners.

All graduate student instructors of Latin and of first-year writing seminars are required to enroll in CLASS 7345 (the Graduate TA Training Course), which supplies pedagogical instruction and course coordination.

Funding

All funding is contingent upon academic performance constituting good standing in the graduate field and satisfactory performance in any teaching or research assignments, as defined by the Field of Classics.

All students admitted to the Bridge MA are guaranteed two summers and two semesters of funding (tuition, health insurance, and an annual stipend), with a summer matriculation (June 1). Housing on campus will be provided for the first summer (June 1-August 15).

All students admitted to the PhD are guaranteed six years of support, including tuition and health insurance, as well as an annual stipend, and a summer stipend after the first through fifth years.

Two years of this support (ordinarily the first and the fifth) take the form of fellowships provided by the Graduate School (for example, Sage Fellowships and Deans Excellence Fellowships). The dissertation-year fellowship (ordinarily taken in the fifth year) will be available only to students who have passed the “A” Examination. In addition, students seeking the dissertation-year fellowship must have written and submitted an external fellowship or grant proposal before the dissertation-year fellowship is awarded, to encourage all students to pursue external funding.

All students should discuss their plans to apply for outside funding with their Special Committee and with the DGS, who will suggest appropriate programs. In recent years, graduate students in Classics and related Fields have received research support from many external entities, including but not limited to:

  • The American Academy in Rome
  • The American School of Classical Studies in Athens
  • The Chateaubriand Fellowship Program
  • DAAD (Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst)
  • Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection
  • The Lemmermann Foundation
  • The National Science Foundation      

The other four years of support are derived from teaching assistantships and from fellowships administered by the Department. Teaching assistantships are assigned after consultation between DGS and Chair; they depend primarily upon course enrollment and departmental need. Students are encouraged to reflect upon their past teaching and express interest in future assignments via the relevant question on the Student Progress Review (see below), with the understanding that assignments are ultimately constrained by the undergraduate curriculum.

All students in their fifth year submit an application for sixth-year funding. The application consists of two parts, a dissertation colloquium (see above, under “milestones”) and a written dossier. The purpose of the application is not to compete for a scarce resource – sixth-year funding is guaranteed– but to ensure continued progress and good academic standing.

Seventh-year funding can on occasion be offered, but is heavily constrained by available resources and annual contingencies. Students in their sixth year should discuss their individual situations and develop a plan with their committee chair and DGS.

The department has limited funding available for conferences and travel. Students are encouraged to exhaust other sources of funding first (from the Graduate School, the Einaudi Center, and the Society for the Humanities), before applying to the department.

Classics offers support for summer projects (language courses, field work, workshops of all sorts). The DGS issues a call for proposals in the Spring, at which point students may submit a rationale, a budget, and approval of the Chair of their Special Committee.

Student Learning Outcomes

The field of Classics assists graduate students to

make an original and substantial contribution to the field;

  • think originally and independently
  • identify new research opportunities

achieve breadth and diversity of knowledge in the field;

  • proficiency in the relevant languages, ancient and modern
  • thorough command of theoretical and empirical knowledge across the field
  • in-depth knowledge of one major area

communicate research findings effectively;

  • produce publishable scholarship
  • achieve excellence in spoken presentations

and, demonstrate effective skills in undergraduate teaching.

Student Progress Review

All students are required to complete the Student Progress Review (SPR) in March of each year. The SPR supports regular communication including written feedback between students and their advisors, requiring research degree students and their Special Committee to have at least one formal conversation each year about academic progress, accomplishments, and plans. Students complete a form describing milestones completed, accomplishments, challenges and plans. The Special Committee chair responds in writing and indicates whether the student’s progress is excellent, satisfactory, needs improvement, or is unsatisfactory.

Field Resources

Staff:

Department Manager: Keeley Boerman (kse6) (607) 255-4047
Graduate Field Assistant/Accounts Coordinator/Chair’s Assistant: Keeley Boerman (kse6) (607) 255-4047
Undergraduate Coordinator: Linda Brown (lmb296) (607) 255-3354

Faculty (with concentrations):

For contact information, research profiles, courses offered, etc., see the department website.

Frederick M. Ahl (classical philology and literature)
Annetta Alexandridis (classical archaeology and art, interdisciplinary Classics)
Benjamin Anderson (classical archaeology and art, interdisciplinary Classics)
Caitlín Barrett (classical archaeology and art)
Tad Brennan (ancient philosophy, interdisciplinary Classics)
Charles Brittain (ancient philosophy, classical philology and literature, interdisciplinary Classics)
Michael Fontaine (classical philology and literature)
Jill Frank (ancient philosophy)
Nicole Giannella (ancient history, classical philology and literature, interdisciplinary Classics)
Kathryn L. Gleason (classical archaeology and art)
Andrew Hicks (classical philology and literature)
Rachana Kamtekar (ancient philosophy)
Lori Khatchadourian (classical archaeology and art)
Athena Kirk (classical philology and literature, interdisciplinary Classics)
Scott MacDonald (ancient philosophy)
Sturt W. Manning (classical archaeology and art)
Larry McCrea (Greek and Latin languages and linguistics)
Alan J. Nussbaum (classical philology and literature, Greek and Latin languages and linguistics)
Hayden Pelliccia (classical philology and literature)
Verity Platt (classical archaeological and art, classical philology and literature, interdisciplinary Classics)
Éric Rebillard (ancient history, classical archaeology and art, classical philology and literature, interdisciplinary Classics)
Courtney Roby (classical philology and literature, interdisciplinary Classics)
Jeffrey Rusten (classical philology and literature)
Barry Strauss (ancient history)
Astrid Van Oyen (classical archaeology and art, interdisciplinary Classics)
Michael Weiss (Greek and Latin languages and linguistics)

Facilities:

Classics Lounge (Goldwin Smith 119):

The lounge is an ID card activated room reserved for Classics graduate students and faculty. In the lounge are the graduate student mailboxes, tea and coffee supplies, and a fridge and microwave. The lounge is also the location of a small Classics library, as well as two computers and a printer available for free faculty and graduate student use. Copies of books in the cabinets, such as the Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae (LIMC), can be consulted upon request; access will be provided by staff in the Classics office.

TA Office (Goldwin Smith 354):

Graduate students have access to the shared office during semesters when they teach for working and holding office hours.

Classics Reading Rooms (Olin Library 604 and 605):

Two password protected rooms reserved for graduate and faculty use. These two rooms house the Classics reference and non-circulating collection, as well as a number of library carrels allotted to Classics graduate students based on availability.

Photocopies/Scanning:

Graduate students have access to a free printer in the Classics Lounge in Goldwin Smith Hall to use for school and teaching related purposes. The Classics Department office, also in Goldwin Smith, has a printer and scanner available for use as well.

Keys:

Keys to the Classics TA office are distributed each semester based on TA needs. The Classics Lounge is accessible to graduate students via their university ID cards. The Classics Reading Rooms are accessible by a key code punch pad; the code will be shared with graduate students by department staff.

Student groups:

Diversitas:

Our purpose is to facilitate diversity and inclusion in Classics as a discipline. We believe that diversity includes, but is not limited to: race, religion, gender, sexual orientation, immigration status, ability, parental status, and socio-economic status. The aims of this organization are to provide an anonymous platform for graduate students in Classics to raise issues, make announcements, and request accommodations in the department via appointed representatives.

From the bylaws: “The purpose of Diversitas shall be to facilitate diversity and inclusion in Classics as a discipline. We believe that diversity includes, but is not limited to: race, religion, gender, sexual orientation, immigration status, ability, parental status, and socio-economic status. The aims of this organization are to provide an anonymous platform for graduate students in Classics to raise issues, make announcements, and request accommodations in the department via appointed representatives.” All Classics graduate students are welcome, and there is no formal process to apply for membership.

Reading Groups:

A crowd-sourced list of faculty- and student-run reading groups and organizations may be found here

Selected Resources Beyond the Field

The following Cornell resources have been suggested by faculty and graduate students as having particular relevance for graduate students in Classics.

Graduate School Resources

The Office of Academic and Student Affairs works with graduate faculty and graduate students on academic policy and programs, academic integrity and misconduct, responsible conduct of research, petitions requesting exceptions to graduate school policy as outlines in the Graduate Faculty’s Code of Legislation, and academic progress and student status. The office also offers academic, writing and professional development programs, including proposal/thesis/dissertation writing boot camp, the Productive Writer email (Sign Up), Graduate Write-Ins, Productive Writing workshops, Fellowship Application Writing Workshops and Fellowship Listserv Tips, Productive Fellowship Writer Mailing List, Writing and Publishing Workshop Series, Three Minute Thesis Competition, and the Advising Guide for Research Students.

The Office of Inclusion and Student Engagement (OISE) supports an inclusive and welcoming environment for all graduate and postdoctoral scholars, but especially for those from marginalized communities and/or backgrounds historically excluded from and underrepresented in the academy. OISE supports systemic change and promotes a climate of diversity, belonging, equity, engagement, and achievement, which are integral components of graduate and postdoctoral education. OISE supports scholar success through recruitment, diversity fellowships, mentoring, professional, leadership, and community development programming, and ongoing support.

Recognizing that health and academic performance are intimately linked, the Office of Graduate Student Life is a source of information, support, and advocacy that creates a more student-centered graduate student life experience. In addition to being a first-point of contact for students who are struggling or experiencing any form of distress, the Office of Graduate Student Life serves as a coordinating hub with campus-partners that focus on promoting a healthy and holistic student experience. More information on available support is available: https://gradschool.cornell.edu/student-experience/help-and-support/  

Accessibility and Accommodation

Cornell’s Student Disability Services is found here. Accessibility and Accommodation tools from Cornell’s Center for Teaching Innovation are found here. Information on accessible entrances, pathways, and transportation can be found at the map linked from this website.

Contact: Student Disability Services (607) 254-4545, sds_cu@cornell.edu; students may schedule meetings with counselors here. Incoming graduate students who know that they will require accommodations should look into contacting their SDS counselor and relevant doctors before the first semester begins or as soon as health insurance is available. This gives the greatest chance that accommodations are approved before the program and/or semester begins. Physicians at Cornell Health and SDS counselors are typically busy in late August, so we suggest making appointments either for before that time or well in advance, if possible.  

Students with Families

Cornell runs a website with resources for students who have families, including expectant students, students with partners, and students with children, which can be found here. The Students with Families website includes a resource directory, links to social networking for students with families, links to relevant university policies, and information on resources available for partners looking for jobs.

Other Facilities

Students must pay for a gym membership to have access to most athletic facilities on campus. A description of recreational facilities and gyms can be found here. Cornell maintains a list of universal (gender neutral) bathrooms, available here. Cornell also maintains a lactation and breastfeeding support system, including a number of breastfeeding and pumping rooms, listed here.

Federal law

Two federal laws regulating higher education are particularly significant for graduate students and instructors. Title IX is anti-discrimination legislation; for more information, see Cornell’s Office of Institutional Equity and Title IX. FERPA protects the privacy of student records; for more information, see the University Registrar.

Appendices: Preparing for "Q" Examination

Ancient history, ancient philosophy, and classical philology and literature (the “Classics Reading List”)
Preparing for the “Q”:
The exam comprises two three-hour translations without dictionary, one in Greek and the other in Latin, both containing passages from ca. six different authors (genres, etc.). It is designed to test knowledge of the reading list texts, but perhaps more importantly, it is also intended to guide you in developing a broad proficiency in reading Greek and Latin. The point of the exam is thus not exclusively to learn the reading list texts in your first two years, but to incorporate them among the other texts you are reading in Greek and Latin for your seminars and your broader scholarly interests. These reading skills will prove vital for the remainder of your coursework, your burgeoning research program, and your teaching. The Q exam provides the opportunity to test how effectively you have internalized these skills. That is to say, it is not an end in itself but part of your larger development as a scholar capable of working fluently with ancient texts for research and teaching.

The best way to prepare for the Q exams is to read original texts regularly and extensively on your own, with the additional help of Advanced Readings courses and reading groups. The reading list is designed to be read in its entirety and consists of manageable selections from key authors.  Anything on the reading list may potentially appear on the exam, whether or not it has come up in your coursework. Certain authors may tend to appear more often than others, but you are expected to have gained facility with all of them. The passages for the exam are not chosen to be particularly tricky or difficult, but some canonical authors can be challenging to read (think Aristotle and Thucydides). So plan to read everything, until either you feel you’ve mastered the list or you find you can read an arbitrarily selected passage of any of the texts more or less at sight.

The “Advanced Readings in Latin/Greek” courses are a valuable tool to help you prepare for the exam in your first year. These courses are designed specifically as opportunities to read rapidly through a selection of the texts on the reading list, as well as learn techniques for internalizing the languages and translating in an exam setting. “Advanced Readings” courses usually include frequent quizzes and a few larger exams on the texts you are reading. These assessments may ask you to translate passages of text just as you will on the exam, but they may also include other types of questions that reinforce those skills, such as questions on syntax or the characters or events in a set passage. You may also be asked to read passages at sight and engage in other activities designed to enhance your facility with the languages.

Whether or not your “Advanced Readings” professor states this explicitly, you should not bring a translation of any kind into class with you. Indeed, it is a good idea to wean yourself off making English translations of Greek and Latin as soon as you can; leaning on translations will prevent you from developing proficiency as a reader. Keep vocabulary lists for yourself to make into flash cards; you will be amazed at how much faster your class and exam preparation goes once you don’t have to stop to look at the dictionary so frequently. Keep checking English translations to an absolute minimum; if you cannot figure something out in the Greek or Latin, it is better to ask your professor or a classmate before resorting to an English translation, as only the most disciplined of us can keep our eyes from roving to other parts of the text. It can be very easy to come to believe that you understand a passage after reading a translation, only to discover on an exam that what you actually mastered was the English.

Again, whether or not your “Advanced Readings” professor assigns one, now is the time to obtain a good reference grammar, e.g. Allen and Greenough for Latin, Smyth for Greek. Ask around the department for other suggestions; all faculty have their favorites. Keep it by your side at all times when preparing a text; when you are confronted with a confusing genitive or subjunctive, it is much better to look up the relevant topic in your reference grammar to sort out the confusion than to try to do so by reading an English gloss.

Another vitally important resource is the recommended list of commentaries to the reading list texts (see below). These commentaries are split into three categories on the list, in increasing order of detail. The first two categories (“school” and “college” editions) will be most useful for your Q exam preparations. Many are very affordable; the rest can be found in the library (in the main collection and/or in the Classics Reading Rooms). You should absolutely make use of these tools, whether or not they are explicitly assigned in “Advanced Readings”; they are one of the very most important resources to help you understand the context of what you are reading, alongside helpful notes about vocabulary and grammar (in the case of the first two categories).

As you move out of your first year, you should balance your course load to include more seminars. That doesn’t mean your preparation for the Q exam should end here, however. Outside the formal environment of the “Advanced Readings” classroom, it will be very helpful to set up semi-formal opportunities to study and practice with the rest of your cohort. Weekly (or biweekly) reading groups where you assign yourselves passages from the list, read them on your own, and get together to discuss grammatical sticking points and other puzzlements will be an invaluable tool. Follow the same guidelines as you did for “Advanced Readings” preparation: minimal use of English translations, liberal use of word lists and flash cards, a stash of recommended commentaries, and an unbreakable bond with your reference grammar. You can set out a schedule well in advance to cover the entirety of the reading list – of course unexpected interruptions happen, but you can easily get back on track. You can even keep these groups going over the summer, whether you meet in Ithaca or remotely.

As your preparations move on from year one to year two, you should feel a noticeable improvement in your Greek and Latin: you should be able to read faster, with fewer and fewer trips to a dictionary, and maintain a deeper sense of the context and style of what you are reading. If you feel this is not the case for you, check in with your DGS sooner rather than later, as they may be able to help you make your studying more efficient and productive. By the time you reach the exam, our hope is that it will present a welcome opportunity to showcase the skills you have developed, rather than a daunting obstacle. Key to this is continuous and honest self-assessment about how you are faring with the long-term goals of improving your vocabulary and your understanding of syntactical nuance, of situating the texts you are reading within their historical context and against a backdrop of evolving styles and genres, and of developing confidence in your ability to read just about any Greek or Latin the Fates may throw at you. You will then be ready to pursue your own reading interests wherever they may lead. Good luck!

Appendices: The Classics Reading List

Greek
Aeschylus: Agamemnon
Aristophanes: Frogs
Aristotle: NE I
Euripides: Bacchae
Gorgias: Helen
Hellenistic: Selected poems [Callimachus, Apollonius, Moschus & epigrams in N. Hopkinson, A Hellenistic Anthology (Cambridge 1988) & Theocritus Idylls I & VII]
Hesiod: Theogony
Herodotus: I
Homer: Iliad XIX-XXIV, Odyssey XIX-XXIV
Lyrici: Selected poems [The selections in F. Budelmann, Greek Lyric: a selection (Cambridge 2018), & Archilochus, Tyrtaeus, Mimnermus, Theognis, and Bacchylides 17 in D. A. Campbell, Greek Lyric Poetry (Bristol 1982)]
Lysias: I, VII, XII, XXIV
Menander: Dyscolos
Pindar: O. I-III, P. I & III, Is. I
Plato: Symposium
Plutarch: How to listen to poets
Sophocles: OT
Thucydides: II
Xenophon: Apology, Symposium

Latin
Archaic: Selected fragments [Accius Brutus; Andronicus Odusia; Caecilius Plocium; Cato De falsis pugnis; Ennius Ann . I, Andromache, Medea; Epitaphs of the Scipios; Salian & Arval Hymns; Lucilius virtus fr.; Lutatius Catulus epigrams, Naevius Bellum Poenicum, Tarentilla, Cum Metellis Altercatio; Pacuvius fortuna & profectio fr., Porcius Licinius epigrams, Valerius Aedituus epigrams, Volcacius Sedigitus iudicium comicorum fr.]
Apuleius: Cupid & Psyche
Catullus: 1-68
Caesar: Bellum Civile III
Cicero: In Catilinam I & III, Pro Caelio, Selected letters [3, 6, 9, 11, 13, 15, 18, 20, 21, 23, 24, 26, 29, 45, 48, 51, 52, 63, 66, 70, 73 in Shackleton Bailey, Cicero: Select Letters (Cambridge 1980) = A1.2, A1.13, F14.2, A4.5, F5.12, F7.1, F7.5, F7.6, A5.1, F13.1, F15.1, F15.6, F9.18, F9.26, F7.26, F5.16, A13.52, A14.1, A15.11, A16.6].
Horace: Ars Poetica, Odes III
Juvenal: I, X.
Livy: I
Lucan: VII
Lucretius: III
Ovid: Metamorphoses I
Petronius: Cena
Plautus: Pseudolus
Propertius: I
Sallust: Catilina
Seneca: Letters 7, 24, 47, 56, 88, 90, 114, 122
‘Seneca’: Thyestes
Tacitus: Agricola
Terence: Eunuchus
Virgil: Aeneid VII-XII

List of recommended commentaries:
This list contains suggestions about which texts to use for the Q list and also about basic commentaries that may be useful.  The numbers in square brackets before the titles indicate their intended audience:  

[1]: ‘school editions’, mainly of use for vocabulary and grammar.
[2]: ‘college editions’, more advanced, but still aimed at (college-level) students.
[3]: ‘scholarly editions’, more advanced still, and aimed in part or wholly at scholars.

Since its purpose is to help a first reading of Q texts, this list only includes a few [3]-type commentaries. You can find the standard scholarly commentaries for many authors in the Classics Reading Rooms in Olin. For further bibliography, you can also consult the Oxford Bibliographies Online via the library webpage.

Greek

Aeschylus: Agamemnon    text:  West 1991 Teubner.
    commentaries:   
[1] Raeburn, D. and Thomas, O. (eds.), The Agamemnon of Aeschylus: A Commentary for Students (Oxford: 2011).
[2] Denniston, J.D. & Page, D. (eds.), Aeschylus, Agammenon (Oxford: 1957).

Aristophanes: Frogs        text:  Dover (below)
    commentaries:    
[1] Stanford, W.B. (ed.), Aristophanes. The Frogs (London: 1958).
[2] Dover, K. (ed.), Aristophanes. Frogs (Oxford: 1993).

Aristotle: NE I:         text:  Bywater OCT.    
    commentaries:    
[1] Banchich, T. (ed.) Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics Book 1 (Bryn Mawr: 2004).  
[2] Grant, A., The Ethics of Aristotle [2] Vol. II (1885).
[3] Stewart, J.A., Notes on the Nicomachean Ethics of Aristotle, vol. 2 (Oxford: 1890).   

Euripides: Bacchae        text:  OCT Diggle
    commentaries:    
[2] Dodds, E. R. (ed.), Euripides: Bacchae (2d ed., Oxford: 1960).

Gorgias: Helen        text: MacDowell (below)
[2] MacDowell, D.M (ed.), Encomium of Helen / Gorgias (reprint, Bristol: 1993).

Hellenistic poetry:         text: Hopkinson (below)
[2] Hopkinson, N., A Hellenistic Anthology (Cambridge: 1988)

Hesiod: Theogony        text: West (below)
[3] West, M.L. (ed.), Hesiod. Theogony (Oxford: 1966).

Herodotus: I            text: OCT Herodotus. Historiae  Hude. 3d ed. 2 vols.  
    commentaries:    
[1] Sheets, G. A. (ed.), Herodotus, Book I. (Bryn Mawr: 1993).
[3] Asheri, David, A. B. Lloyd, and A. Corcella (eds), A commentary on Herodotus I–IV  (Oxford Univ. Press, 2007).

Homer: Iliad XIX-XXIV, Odyssey XIX-XXIV.  
Texts:  OCTs or, for the Iliad: Homerus, Ilias. Edited by Martin L. West. Stuttgart, Germany: Teubner 1998–2000     
commentaries:  
[2] For Od. 19–24:
Russo, J., Fernandez-Galiano, M., and Heubeck, A. (eds.), A commentary on Homer’s Odyssey (Books 17–24)  (Oxford).
Rutherford, R.B. (ed.), Odyssey Books XIX and XX (Cambridge: 1992).
[3] For Il. 19–20:  
 Edwards, M. W. (ed.),  The Iliad: A commentary, vol. 5 (Books 17–20). (Cambridge: 1991).
[3] For Il. 20–24:
Richardson, N. J. (ed.),  The Iliad: A commentary, vol. 6 (Books 21–24) (Cambridge: 1993).     

Lyrici : Selected poems
[2] Campbell, D.A., Greek Lyric Poetry (Bristol: 1991), to be supplemented by
[2] Budelmann, F., Greek lyric: A selection (Cambridge: 2018).

Lysias: I, VII, XII, XXIV     text: Lysiae orationes OCT ed. C. Carey. 2007.       
commentaries:     
For 1:   
[1]  Scodel, R. (ed.) Lysias: Orations I, III. (Bryn Mawr: 1986).
[2]  Carey, C. (ed.) Selected speeches / Lysias (Cambridge:1989).  
For 7:
[2]  Carey, as above.
For 12:
[1]  Edwards, M.J. (ed.), Five speeches (reprint, Bristol: 1999).
For 24:
[1] Adams, C.D. (ed.), Lysias. Selected speeches XII, XVI, XIX, XXII, XXIV, XXV, XXXII (New York: 1905).
[1] Edwards, M. J., and Usher, S. Greek orators I. Antiphon and Lysias. (Warminster: 1985).

Menander: Dyscolos               text:  WG Arnott (ed.) Menander Vol. 1 (Loeb, 1979).
    commentaries:    
[2] Handley, E.W. (ed.), Menander. Dyskolos (London: 1965).
[3] Gomme, A.W. and Sandbach, F.H. (eds). Menander: A commentary (Oxford: 1973).

Pindar: O. I-III, P. I & III, Is. I    text:  Bruno Snell & Hervicus Maehler. 1987. Pindari carmina cum fragmentis. Vol. 1, 8th ed. Leipzig: Teubner.      
    commentaries:     
For all but O. 3 and P. 3:   
[2] Kirkwood, G. (ed.), Selections from Pindar. (Chico, CA: 1982).
For O. 3 and P. 3:   
[2] Gildersleeve, B. L. (ed.), Pindar: The Olympian and Pythian odes (New York: 1979 [1885]).

Plato: Symposium        text: J Burnet (ed.), OCT Platonis Opera Vol, II.    
    commentaries:  
[1] Rose, G. Plato: Symposium (Bryn Mawr: 1998).
[2] Dover, J.K. (ed.), Plato: Symposium (Cambridge: 1980).   

Plutarch: How to listen to poets    text:  Plutarchus Moralia Vol.1 (ed.) W Paton, Teubner 1998.
    commentaries:
[2] Hunter, R. & Russell, D. (eds.), Plutarch: How to study poetry (Cambridge: 2011).

Sophocles: OT      text:  Sophoclis Fabulae OCT 1990 (ed.) Lloyd-Jones & Wilson or  RD Dawe (ed.) Teubner 1984.
    commentaries:
[1] Rusten, J. (ed.), Sophocles. Oedipus tyrannos (Bryn Mawr: 1991).  
[2] Dawe, R.D. (ed.), Sophocles Oedipus Rex (Cambridge: 1982).

Thucydides: II        text: OCT 1942.  
    commentaries:  
[2] Rusten, J.S. (ed.),  Thucydides. The Peloponnesian war Book II. (Cambridge: 1989).

Xenophon: Apology, Symposium    text: Marchant OCT.    
    commentaries:  
For Apology:         
[1] Konstan, D. (ed.), Xenophon’s Apology of Socrates (Bryn Mawr: 1987).
[2] Pucci, P. (ed.), Xenophon. Socrates’ Defense, with text (Marchant OCT) and commentary (Amsterdam: 2002).
[2] Denyer, N. (ed.), Plato and Xenophon, Apologies of Socrates (Cambridge: 2019).
For Symposium:     
[1] Miller, A. (ed.) Xenophon’s Symposium. (Bryn Mawr: 2005).
[2] Bowen, A.J.. Xenophon; Symposium, with an Introduction, Translation and Commentary (Warminster: 1998).

Latin

Archaic: Selected fragments [Accius Brutus; Andronicus Odusia; Caecilius Plocium; Cato De falsis pugnis; Ennius Ann. I, Andromache, Medea; Epitaphs of the Scipios; Salian & Arval Hymns; Lucilius virtus fr.; Lutatius Catulus epigrams, Naevius Bellum Poenicum, Tarentilla, Cum Metellis Altercatio; Pacuvius fortuna & profectio fr., Porcius Licinius epigrams, Valerius Aedituus epigrams, Volcacius Sedigitus iudicium comicorum fr.]       
    texts:     
Ernout, A., Recueil de textes latins archaiques (Paris: 1966).
Marx, F., C. Lucilii carminum reliquiae (Teubner, 1905).
E.H. Warmington, Remains of Old Latin vols. 1-4 (Loeb Classical Library).
    commentaries:
[3] Courtney, E.C., Fragmentary Latin Poets (Oxford: 1993).
[3] Hollis, A.S. Fragments of Roman Poetry (Oxford: 2007).
[3] Skutch, O., Ennius Annales (Oxford: 1985).

Apuleius: Cupid & Psyche:    text:  Hanson (Loeb, 1989)
    commentaries:   
[2] Kenney, E.J. (ed.), Apuleius: Cupid & Psyche. (Cambridge: 1990).

Catullus: 1-68:            text: DFS Thomson (ed.), Catullus (U of Toronto press, 1997)
    commentaries:    
[1] Garrison, D. (ed.), The Student’s Catullus (Norman: 2004).
[2] Fordyce, C.J. (ed.), Catullus (Oxford: 1990).
[2] Quinn, K. (ed.), Catullus: The Poems (Bristol: 1996).

Caesar: Bellum Civile III:     text: OCT
    commentaries:    
[1] EC Kennedy (ed.) Caesar De Bello Civili III (Bristol Classical Press reprint 2002).
[2] JM Carter (ed.), Julius Caesar The Civil War Book III (Aris & Phillips, 1993).

Cicero:
In Catilinam I & III:  
[1] Gould, H.E. & Whiteley, J.L. (eds.), Cicero In Catinilam I & II (reprint, Bristol: 1982).
[2] Dyck, A. (ed.), Cicero Catilinarians (Cambridge: 2008).
 Pro Caelio:  
[1] Engelert, W. (ed.), Cicero Pro Caelio (Bryn Mawr: 1990).  
[2] Dyck, A. (ed.), Pro Marco Caelio (Cambridge: 2013).
[3] Austin, R.G., M. Tulli Ciceronis Pro Celio oratio (Oxford: 1963).
Selected letters [no.s 3, 6, 9, 11, 13, 15, 18, 20, 21, 23, 24, 26, 29, 45, 48, 51, 52, 63, 66, 70, 73 in SB edition below]
[2] Bailey, S. Cicero: Select Letters (Cambridge: 1980)

Horace: Ars Poetica, Odes III:    text: F. Klingner (Teubner, 1959)
    commentaries:    
[1] Gould, H.E. & Whiteley, J.L. (eds.), Odes Book Three (London: 1953).
[1] Garrison, D. (ed.), Horace: Epodes and Odes (Norman: 1998).
[1] Quinn, K. Horace Odes (London: 1984).
[2] Williams, G. (ed.), The Third Book of Horace’s Odes (Oxford: 1969).
[2] Rudd, N. (ed.), Horace: Epistles Book II and Ars Poetica (Cambridge: 1990).

Juvenal: I, X:            text: W.V. Clausen (OCT)
    commentaries:   
[1] Rudd, N. & Courtney, E. (eds.), Juvenal Satires I, III, X (Bristol)
[2] Hardy, E.G. (ed.), The Satires of Juvenal  (London: 1959)
[2] Braund, S.M. (ed.), Juvenal Satires Book I (Cambridge: 1996).  [Sat. 1 only.]

Livy: I:                text:  R.M. Ogilvie (OCT)
    commentaries:    
[1] Gaisser, J.H. (ed.), Livy Book 1: commentary (Bryn Mawr: 2002).
[1] Gould, H.E. & Whiteley, J.L. (eds.),  Livy:  Book I (reprint, Bristol: 1993)

Lucan: VII:            texts: A.E. Housman (Cambridge), Shackleton Bailey (Teubner)
    commentaries:    
[2] Dilke, O., Lucan Be Bello Civili VII (reprint, Bristol: 1998)    
[2] Roche, P., Lucan De Bello Civili VII (Cambridge: 2019).

Lucretius: III:        text:  MF Smith (rev.) W Rouse (ed.),  Lucretius De rerum natura (Loeb, 1992 rev. ed.).
    commentaries:    
[2] Leonard, W. & Smith, S. (eds.), De rerum Natura (Madison: 1942).
[2] Kenney, E. (ed.), De rerum natura Book III  (Cambridge: 2014).

Ovid: Metamorphoses I:        texts: W.S. Anderson (Teubner), R. Tarrant (OCT)
    commentaries:    
[1] Lee, A.G. (ed.), Metamorphoses I (Cambridge: 1953).
[2] Anderson, W.S. (ed.), Ovid’s Metamorphoses Books 1–5. (Norman: 1997).

Petronius: Cena:            text: K. Mueller (Teubner)
    commentaries:    
[2] Smith, M.S. (ed.), Cena Trimalchionis / Petronii Arbitri (Oxford: 1975).

Plautus: Pseudolus:        text: W.M. Lindsay (OCT)
    commentaries:    
[1] Wilcock, M. (ed.), Plautus Pseudolus (reprint, Bristol: 1991)
[2] Christensen, D. (ed.), Plautus Pseudolus (Cambridge: 2020).

Propertius: I:            text:   S.J. Heyworth (OCT, 2007)
    commentaries:    
[2] Camps, W.A. (ed.), Propertius Elegies Book I (Cambridge: 1966).
[3] Butler, H. E., and Barber, E.A. (eds.), The Elegies of Propertius (Oxford: 1933).

Sallust: Catilina:            text: L.D. Reynolds (OCT)
    commentaries:    
[2] Ramsey, J.T. (ed).  Sallust’s Bellum Catilinae (Oxford: 2007).
    
Seneca: Letters 7, 24, 47, 56, 88, 90, 114, 122       text: L. Reynolds OCT
    commentaries:    
[1] Motto, A.L. (ed.), Seneca’s Moral Epistles (Wauconda: 2007).
[2] Edwards, C. (ed.), Seneca Selected Letters (Cambridge: 2019).
[2] Summers, W. (ed.), Select Letters of Seneca (Bristol).

Seneca:  Thyestes:            text: O. Zweirlein (OCT)  
    commentaries:  
[2] Boyle, A.J. Seneca, Thyestes (Oxford: 2017).
[3] Tarrant, R.J. (ed.), Seneca’s Thyeste (Atlanta: 1985).
      
Tacitus: Agricola:            text: R.M. Oglivie (OCT)
    commentaries:    
[3] Ogilvie, R.M. & Richmond, I. (eds.), Tacitus Agricola (Oxford: 1967).     

Terence:   Eunuchus:        text: Kauer & Lindsay OCT.
    commentaries:        
[2] Barsby, J. (ed.), Terence Eunuchus (Cambridge: 1999).
    
Virgil: Aeneid VII-XII    text: Mynors, OCT, G.B. Conte (Teubner)
    commentaries:        
[1] Williams, R., (ed.), Virgil Aeneid VII-XII (Bristol: 1998).
[2] Fordyce, C. J. Aeneidos Libri VII-VIII. With a Commentary (Oxford: 1977.).
[2] Hardie, P.R. Virgil, Aeneid Book IX  (Cambridge: 1995).
[3] Harrison, S. J.  Aeneid 10 (Oxford: 1991).
[2] Gransden, K. W. Virgil, Aeneid Book XI  (Cambridge: 1991).
[2] Tarrant, R.J. (ed.) Virgil Aeneid Books XII (Cambridge: 2012).

Appendices: Preparing for the “Q”: Classical Archaeology and Art

Preparing for the “Q”:

The exam comprises a list of ca. six to eight questions, from which you will choose to answer three by means of short essays (three hours total, or roughly one hour per essay). It is designed to test knowledge of the texts on the reading list, but more importantly, it is intended to cultivate a broad understanding of central conversations in classical archaeology and art, and to help you find your own voice within them. The exam therefore does not require detailed recollection of the factual content of the assigned texts, rather the ability to use them as potential models for your own research. This requires that you shift from reading as memorization to reading as a means to develop (and eventually answer) research questions; from reading as a student to reading as a scholar. The Q-exam is an opportunity to test how effectively you have made this transition. It should allow you to identify your own strengths and areas for improvement, and it should initiate a conversation with your special committee about A-exams and dissertation projects.

The best, indeed the only way to prepare is to read the texts. You will read the list in its entirety, with the additional help of the Advanced Readings course and reading groups. Again, the point is not to memorize the content of any given book or essay, but to be able to accurately summarize its arguments and impacts on the fields of Classical archaeology and art. Accordingly, as you approach each reading, you should keep a few basic questions in mind:  

  • What is the key argument?
  • What evidence serves the author as the basis for the argument?
  • Which methodology does the author employ to interpret the evidence?
  • To whom, or to what, is the author responding? (In other words, why is the argument consequential?)
  • What influence has the book or essay had upon subsequent scholarship? Does its reception accurately represent its argument, or has it been misunderstood, reinterpreted, etc.?

You will undoubtedly read some texts more closely than others. The amount of attention that you give to each text will depend in part on your pre-existing interests. But you should also let yourself be drawn in by texts in subfields that were not previously of interest, and discover unexpected connections across the different sections of the list. In other words, while the list is set and you should read it in its entirety, it should also inspire you to begin “curating” your own core library of key texts.  

The “Advanced Readings in Archaeology” course will be offered either in your first or in your second year. It is designed specifically as an opportunity to read a substantial selection of the texts on the reading list. It will also help develop skills for rapidly assimilating key bibliography at the beginning of a research project as a means to define and refine your own positions and hypotheses. Different instructors may adopt different approaches to the course, but all are encouraged to set at least one timed essay exam as a “dry run” for the Q-exam. The course may also provide an opportunity to begin “curating” your own core list: for example, by writing a short, annotated bibliography based on a subsection of the list, and identifying questions of particular interest to you that draw together multiple texts (and speak across subdisciplines). You should also expect to give presentations on readings (e.g., in the form of critical reviews) and to lead at least one class discussion. Both exercises should help you to start speaking as an expert.

The reading list does not include basic reference texts, but you should become familiar with and make use of references as you read. It is somewhat astonishing (if we may briefly editorialize) how little many students (and, indeed, scholars) know of historical geography. If a reading addresses at length a place (city, region, etc.) that you could not locate on a map, please consult a reference (such as Barrington’s Atlas). Similarly, if a reading addresses at length an institution (or other historical phenomenon) with which you are unfamiliar, please look it up in an encyclopedia (e.g., the Oxford Classical Dictionary or the New Pauly). Entries in Oxford Bibliographies will help you to understand the reception of specific readings and give an overview of other key texts with which they are in dialogue. And so forth. In short, use your preparation for the Q-exam also as an opportunity to familiarize yourself with basic research tools in Classics (and use the Advanced Readings course as an opportunity to ask faculty and peers about their preferred tools).

Outside of the more formal environment of the “Advanced Readings” classroom, it will be helpful for you to set up semi-formal opportunities to study with the rest of your cohort. Regular reading groups, in which you might discuss a set of texts and collectively work through puzzlements, can be very helpful. You should also use the reading list as a tool to situate assigned readings for more specialized courses; and doubtless many texts on the list will be useful sources for papers and other projects undertaken for various seminars.

As you approach the Q-exam, you should find yourself reading secondary literature more quickly, and you should also feel more confident posing questions in seminar, engaging with visiting speakers, etc. Most importantly, you should begin to develop a clear sense of the history and present shape of the fields of classical archaeology and art, the contributions you want to make, and the skills and study that you will need to make them. Thus the Q exam is not an end itself, rather the beginning of a conversation that you will continue with your adviser, special committee, teachers, and peers. Happy reading!; and please feel free to contact the DGS with any concerns, whether about the exam itself, the list, or your own progress.

Defining the Subject

Broodbank, C. 2013. The Making of the Middle Sea. Oxford.

Concannon, C.W., and L. A. Mazurek, eds. 2016. Across the Corrupting Sea: Post-Braudelian Approaches to the Ancient Eastern Mediterranean. London/New York, chapters 7 and 8.

Herzfeld, M. 2005. “Practical Mediterraneanism: Excuses for Everything, from Epistemology to Eating.” In Rethinking the Mediterranean, ed. W.V. Harris, ed. Oxford.

Horden, P., and N. Purcell. 2000. The Corrupting Sea: A Study of Mediterranean History. Oxford.

Morris, I. 2003. “Mediterraneanization.” Mediterranean Historical Review 18: 30-55.

History and Development of Classical Archaeology and Classical Art

Anderson, B. 2015. “‘An Alternative Discourse’: Local Interpreters of Antiquities in the Ottoman Empire.” Journal of Field Archaeology 40: 450-460.

Dyson, S.L. 2006. In Pursuit of Ancient Pasts: A History of Classical Archaeology in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. New Haven.

Platt, V. 2016. “The Matter of Classical Art History.” Daedalus 145(2): 5-14.

Renfrew, C. 1980. “The Great Tradition versus the Great Divide: Archaeology as Anthropology?” American Journal of Archaeology 84: 287-298.

Tartaron, T.F. 2008. Aegean Prehistory as World Archaeology: Recent Trends in the Archaeology of Bronze Age Greece. Journal of Archaeological Research 16: 83-161.

Trigger, B.G. 2006. A History of Archaeological Thought. 2nd edition. Cambridge.

Whitley, J. 2001. The Archaeology of Ancient Greece. Cambridge, pp. 3-76 (“Approaches to Greek Archaeology”).

Theory, Methods, and Approaches

Alcock, S.E., and J.F. Cherry, eds. 2004. Side-by-Side Survey: Comparative Regional Studies in the Mediterranean World. Oxford.

Barrett, C.E. 2016. “Archaeology of Ancient Religions.” In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Religion, eds. J. Barton et al. Oxford/New York.

Gell, A. 1998. Art and Agency: An Anthropological Theory. Oxford.

Gosden, C. 2005. “What do Objects Want?” Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 12(3), 193-211.

Hamilakis, Y., et al., eds. 2002. Thinking through the Body: Archaeologies of Corporeality. New York, introduction (Hamilakis et al.) and Chap. 6 (Hamilakis).

Hodder, I. 2011. “Human-Thing Entanglement: Towards an Integrated Archaeological Perspective.” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 17: 154-177.

Ingold, T. et al. 2007. “Materials Against Materiality; and discussion.” Archaeological Dialogues 14: 1-38.

Johnson, M.H. 2012. “Phenomenological Approaches in Landscape Archaeology.” Annual Review of Anthropology 41: 269-284.

Latour, B. 1999. Pandora’s Hope: Essays on the Reality of Social Sciences. Cambridge, MA.

MacKinnon, M. 2007. “Osteological Research in Classical Archaeology.” American Journal of Archaeology 111: 473-504.

Manning, S.W. 2008. “An Edited Past: Aegean Prehistory and Its Texts.” In M.A. Cheetham, E. Legge and C.M. Soussloff, eds., Editing the Image: Strategies in the Production and Reception of the Visual: 33-65. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Meskell, L. 2007. “Archaeologies of Identity.” In T. Insoll, ed., The Archaeology of Identities: A Reader, 23-43. London.

Mullins, P.R. 2011. “The Archaeology of Consumption.” Annual Review of Anthropology 30: 133-144.

Neer, R. 2005. “Connoisseurship and the Stakes of Style.” Critical Inquiry 32: 1-26.

Papadopoulos, J.K., and G. Urton. 2012. “Introduction: The Construction of Value in the Ancient World.” In J.K. Papadopoulos and G. Urton, eds., The Construction of Value in the Ancient World, 1-47. Los Angeles.

Pollard, A.M., and P. Bray. 2007. “A Bicycle Made for Two? The Integration of Scientific Techniques into Archaeological Interpretation.” Annual Review of Anthropology 36: 245-259.

Silliman, S.W. 2015. “A Requiem for Hybridity? The Problem with Frankensteins, Purées and Mules.” Journal of Social Archaeology 15: 277-298.

Stein, G., ed. 2005. The Archaeology of Colonial Encounters: Comparative Perspectives. Santa Fe.

Reception and Ethics

Chippindale, C. and Gill, D.W.J. 2000. “Material Consequences of Contemporary Classical Collecting.” American Journal of Archaeology 104: 463-511.

Hamilakis, Y, and E. Yalouri. 1999. “Sacralizing the Past: The Cults of Archaeology in Modern Greece.” Archaeological Dialogues 6 (1999): 115-135.

Hardwick, L. 2007. “Postcolonial Studies.” In C.W. Kallendorf, ed., A Companion to the Classical Tradition, pp. 312-327. Malden/Oxford.

Rutledge, S. 2012. Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity and the Culture of Collecting. Oxford.

Warren, K.J. 1999. “A Philosophical Perspective on the Ethics and Resolution of Cultural Properties Issues.” In The Ethics of Collecting Cultural Property: Whose Culture? Whose Property?, edited by P.M. Messenger, 1-25. Albuquerque.

Zimmerman, L.J., Vitelli, K.D. and Hollowell-Zimmer, J., eds. 2003. Ethical Issues in Archaeology. Walnut Creek, chapters 2 and 6.

Greek and Roman World

Alcock, S. 1993. Graecia Capta: The Landscapes of Roman Greece. Cambridge.

Alcock, S.E., et al. 2005. “Reading the Landscape: Survey Archaeology and the Hellenistic Oikoumene.” In A Companion to the Hellenistic World, edited by A. Erskine, 354-372. Malden, MA.

Allison, P.M. 2004. Pompeian Households: An Analysis of the Material Culture. Los Angeles.

Barrett, C.E. 2015. “Material Culture.” In Oxford Handbook to Ancient Greek Religion, edited by Esther Eidinow and Julia Kindt, 112-130. Oxford.

Bérard, C., ed. 1989. A City of Images. Iconography and Society in Ancient Greece. Princeton, Trans. D. Lyons.

Bresson, A. 2016. The Making of the Ancient Greek Economy. Princeton.

Van Dommelen, P. 2012. “Colonialism and Migration in the Ancient Mediterranean.” Annual Review of Anthropology 41: 393-409.

Dougherty C., and L. Kurke, eds. 2003. The Cultures within Greek Culture: Contact, Conflict, Collaboration. Cambridge, chapters by Antonaccio, Ober.

Elsner, J. 2007. Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text. Princeton.

Fejfer, J. 2008. Roman Portraits in Context. Berlin.

Finley, M.I. 1999. The Ancient Economy. Updated edition. Berkeley/Los Angeles. Also read Foreword by I. Morris.

Graham, E.-J. 2009. “Becoming Persons, Becoming Ancestors: Personhood, Memory and the Corpse in Roman Rituals of Social Remembrance.” Archaeological Dialogues 16(1).

Greene, K. 2006. “Archaeological Data and Economic Interpretation.” In P.F. Bang et al., eds., Ancient Economies, Modern Methodologies: Archaeology, Comparative History, Models, and Institutions, 109-136. Bari.

Hales, S. 2003. The Roman House and Social Identity. Cambridge.

Hales, S., and T. Hodos, eds. 2010. Material Culture and Social Identities in the Ancient World. Cambridge, chaps. 1 (Hodos) and 2 (Antonaccio).

Hartmann, A. 2013. “Cui vetustas fidem faciat: Inscriptions and Other Material Relics of the Past in Graeco-Roman Antiquity.” In Inscriptions and Their Uses in Greek and Latin Literature, edited by P. Liddel and P. Low, 33-64. Oxford.

Himmelmann, N. 1998. Reading Greek Art, Princeton. Trans. H. A. Shapiro.

Hölscher, T. 2004. The Language of Roman Images. Cambridge. Trans. A. Snodgrass, A. Künzl-Snodgrass.

Hoffmann, H. 1979. “In the Wake of Beazley: Prolegomena to an Anthropological Study of Greek Vase-Painting.” Hephaistos 1: 61-70.

Laurence, R. 2007. Roman Pompeii: Space and Society. 2nd edition.

Liebeschuetz, W. 2001. Decline and Fall of the Roman City. Oxford, first part.

Lissarrague, F. 1990. The Aesthetics of the Greek Banquet. Princeton. Trans. A. Szegedy-Maszak.

Malkin, I., 2011. A Small Greek World. Oxford.

Manning, S. 2013. “The Roman World and Climate: Context, Relevance of Climate Change, and Some Issues.” In W.V. Harris, ed., The Ancient Mediterranean Environment between Science and History, 103-172. Leiden/Boston.

Manning, S.W. and Hulin, L. 2005. “Maritime Commerce and Geographies of Mobility in the Late Bronze Age of the Eastern Mediterranean: Problematizations.” In E. Blake and A.B. Knapp, eds., The Archaeology of Mediterranean Prehistory, 270-302. Malden, MA.

Marvin, M. 2008. The Language of the Muses: The Dialogue between Greek and Roman Sculpture. Los Angeles.

McCormick, M., et al. 2012. “Climate Change during and after the Roman Empire: Reconstructing the Past from Scientific and Historical Evidence.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 43(2): 169-220.

Millett, M. 1990. The Romanization of Roman Britain. An Essay in Archaeological Interpretation, Cambridge.

Morris, I. 1987. Burial and Ancient Society: The Rise of the Greek City-State. Cambridge.

Nevett, L.C. 1999. House and Society in the Ancient Greek World. Cambridge.

Osborne, R. 2007. “Sex, Agency, and History: The Case of Athenian Painted Pottery.” In Art’s Agency and Art History, edited by R. Osborne and J. Tanner, 179-198. Malden, MA.

Osborne, R. 2009. Greece in the Making, 1200–479 B.C. 2nd edition. London, pp. 1-16, 66-152, 331-335.

Van Oyen, A. 2016. How Things Make History: The Roman Empire and Its Terra Sigillata Pottery. Amsterdam.

Petersen, L. 2006. The Freedman in Roman Art and Art History. Cambridge.

Pitts, M. & Versluys, M.J. (eds.). 2015. Globalization and the Roman World. Cambridge, Introduction (Pitts and Versluys), Chap. 4 (Pitts), and Chap. 7 (Versluys).

Platt, V., and M. Squire, eds. 2010. The Art of Art History in Greco-Roman Antiquity (special issue of Arethusa). Arethusa 43.2.

de Polignac, F. 1994. “Mediation, Competition, and Sovereignty: The Evolution of Rural Sanctuaries in Geometric Greece.” In Placing the Gods: Sanctuaries and Sacred Space in Ancient Greece, edited by S. Alcock and R. Osborne, 247-261. Oxford.

Scheidel, W., I. Morris and R. Saller (eds). 2007. The Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-Roman World. Cambridge, Introduction (Morris et al.), Chap. 12 (Davies), and Chap. 20 (Kehoe).

Settis, S., ed. 2015. Serial/Portable Classics. The Greek Canon and Its Mutations. Milan 2015.

Squire, M. 2009. Image and Text in Graeco-Roman Antiquity. Cambridge.

Trimble, J. 2011. Women and Visual Replication in Roman Imperial Art and Culture. Cambridge.

Trümper, M. 2012. “Gender and Space, ‘Public’ and ‘Private.’” In A Companion to Women in the Ancient World, eds. S.L. James and S. Dillon, 288-303. Malden, MA.

Versluys, M.J. 2014. “Understanding Objects in Motion: An Archaeological Dialogue on Romanization.” Archaeological Dialogues 21: 1-20. Read Versluys’ article together with the following responses.

Wallace-Hadrill, A. 2008. Rome’s Cultural Revolution. Cambridge.

Zanker, P., and B. C. Ewald. 2012. Living with Myths. The Imagery of Roman Sarcophagi. Trans. J. Slater. Oxford.

Appendices: Preparing for the “Q”: Greek and Latin Languages and Linguistics

Preparing for the “Q”:

This exam will have two parts:

  • The first part will be a two-hour translation exam based on the Greek and Latin Linguistics reading list. One hour of the exam will be devoted to Greek translation and one hour to Latin translation.  This exam is intended to assess your progress towards mastery of Greek and Latin morphology and syntax.
  • The second part of the Q exam will be a two-hour written exam on the elements of Greek and Latin historical grammar.  This exam will offer you a choice of six essay questions from which you will choose three to answer. You should prepare for this exam by reading and mastering the selections listed below from Michael Weiss’s Outline of the Historical and Comparative Grammar of Latin (2020) and Outline of the Historical and Comparative Grammar of Greek (ms. Cornell 2020) and from Benjamin W. Fortson’s Proto-Indo-European Language and Culture (2013).  In order to progress in the field of Greek and Latin Linguistics you must have a firm and active knowledge of this material. Firm and active knowledge means you understand the basic principles of synchronic and diachronic linguistic analysis and argumentation and that you can explain how the Greek and Latin languages have the forms that they do.

Immediately after the Q Exam, the special committee will meet with each student in the concentration for a brief (ca. one-hour) discussion of a research of a paper that the student will have written for a course taken in the first two years. This paper should demonstrate first-hand involvement with the data, the ability to frame a research question, and thoughtful application of the methods learned.

You should not define your learning in your first two years as limited to preparing on the basis of the above materials for the Q exam. You should read on your own in the secondary literature, both recent articles and books and the classics of the field—many written in German, French or Italian. Your committee will be happy to point you in the right direction. You should join existing discussion groups or found groups of your own tailored to your interests. You should seek out both your colleagues and your professors to discuss questions of Greek and Latin linguistics.  Learning in graduate school is a collaborative process!

Greek

Aeschylus: Agamemnon

Aristophanes: Frogs

Euripides: Bacchae

Gorgias: Helen

Hellenistic: Selected poems [Callimachus, Apollonius, Moschus & epigrams in N.
Hopkinson, A Hellenistic Anthology (Cambridge 1988) & Theocritus Idylls I & VII]

Hesiod: Theogony

Herodotus: I

Homer: Iliad XIX-XXIV, Odyssey XIX-XXIV

Lyrici: Selected poems [The selections in G. O. Hutchinson, Greek Lyric Poetry (Oxford
2001), except the tragic excerpts, & Archilochus in D. A. Campbell, Greek Lyric Poetry
(Bristol 1982)]

Pindar: O. I-III, P. I & III, Is. I

Plato: Symposium

Sophocles: OT

Thucydides: II

Xenophon: Apology, Symposium

Selection of Inscriptions (from Buck, Greek Dialects)

Latin

Appendix Probi

Archaic: Selected fragments [Accius Brutus; Andronicus Odusia; Caecilius Plocium; Cato De falsis pugnis; Ennius Ann . I, Andromache, Medea; Epitaphs of the Scipios; Salian & Arval Hymns; Lucilius virtus fr.; Lutatius Catulus epigrams, Naevius Bellum Poenicum, Tarentilla, Cum Metellis Altercatio; Pacuvius fortuna & profectio fr., Porcius Licinius epigrams, Valerius Aedituus epigrams, Volcacius Sedigitus iudicium comicorum fr.]

Catullus: 1-68

Caesar: Bellum Civile III

Cato: De agricultura 141

Cicero: In Catilinam I & III, Pro Caelio, Selected letters [3, 6, 9, 11, 13, 15, 18, 20, 21, 23, 24, 26, 29, 45, 48, 51, 52, 63, 66, 70, 73 in Shackleton Bailey, Cicero: Select Letters (Cambridge 1980) = A1.2, A1.13, F14.2, A4.5, F5.12, F7.1, F7.5, F7.6, A5.1, F13.1, F15.1, F15.6, F9.18, F9.26, F7.26, F5.16, A13.52, A14.1, A15.11, A16.6].

Gospel of John 6.51-69 [Vetus Latina codex Palatinus, from J.N. Adams, Anthology of
Informal Latin 428–444]

Horace: Ars Poetica, Odes III

Livy: I

Lucretius: III

Petronius: Cena

Plautus: Pseudolus

Sallust: Catilina

Tacitus: Agricola

Terence: Eunuchus

Virgil: Aeneid VII-XII

Secondary Literature

Fortson, Benjamin. 2009. Indo-European Language and Culture. 2nd edition. Blackwell. Malden MA.

Weiss, Michael. 2017. Outline of the Historical and Comparative Grammar of Latin. 2nd edition. Ann Arbor: Beech Stave Press.

Weiss, Michael. Outline of the Historical and Comparative Grammar of Ancient Greek (manuscript).

Appendices: Q Exam Readings: Greek and Latin Language and Linguistics Concentration

1.  From: Fortson, Indo-European Language and Culture: an Introduction2:
Greek: Ch. 12: 248–73
Italic: Ch. 13: 274–308

2.  From: Weiss, Outline of the Historical and Comparative Grammar of Latin2:
PIE Consonants (C) Ch. 4 II A 1-3, II A 4 c-e, II B, II C    36-37, 39-41, 42
PIE Vowels (V) Ch. 4 III    43-47
PIE Word Structure, Root Structure, “Ablaut” Ch. 5    48-52
PIE and Latin “Laryngeals” (H) Ch. 6 I    53-55
Latin Segments     71-75
PIE > Latin Stops (T)  Ch. 9 I-VI, Ch. 10 IV    80-88, 92-93
PIE > Latin Continuants Ch. 10 I-III    89-92
PIE > Latin Vowels (V), Diphthongs (VI), Syllabic Sonorant Cs (R̥) Ch. 11 I-VII    103-114
Latin and Italic Stress    118-120
Latin “Vowel Weakening”    126-131
Latin V̅ Changes Other Than “Weakenings” Ch. 15 I-II    148-155
Latin Rhotacism Ch. 16 II    161-163
PIE Nominals: Case, Number, Gender    210-215
PIE Nominal Endings    215-221, 222-229
Latin Nominal System    230-232
Thematic (“Second Declension”) Stems    232
Thematic Stem Plus Ending Combinations: PIE and Latin    237-243
PIE h₂-Stems > Latin ā-Stems (“First Declension”)    245
h₂-Stem Plus Ending Combinations; Latin ā-Stem Paradigm    246
Athematic Accent/Ablaut Patterns in Inflection     276-279
Latin “Third Declension” (Obstruent- and i-Stems): Introduction    255
Latin Obstruent-Stem Paradigms     255-259
PIE i-Stem Plus Ending Combinations    259
Latin i-Stem Paradigms    260, 261-265
PIE u-Stem Plus Ending Combinations    268
Latin u-Stems     268-269, 269-272
The PIE Verb Ch. 35    400-21
The Latin Verb Ch. 36-39    422-475

Note: a good deal of the PIE morphological treatment overlaps with the Greek Outline.

3.  From: Weiss, Outline of the Historical and Comparative Grammar of Ancient Greek (pdf supplied):

Ch. 6: 4-6               Laryngeals in Greek
Ch. 7: 1-8               Sounds of Greek (synchronic)
Ch. 8: 1-9, 18-19    Development of PIE stops in Greek
Ch. 9: 1-5               Development of PIE continuants (s and sonorant consonants) in Greek
Ch. 10: 1-6             V̅, VI, V̅I, R̥ developments in Greek.  Prothetic Vs.
Ch. 11:
1-2                         Osthoff’s Law.
2-7                         The three compensatory lengthenings.
Ch. 12:
1-6                         PIE and Greek prosody.
6-9                         Special laryngeal developments.
Ch. 13:
1-4                         Pre-Greek and Greek contractions of V+V.
4-5                         Other V+V phenomena
5-6                         Special VI treatments
6-7                         Attic “reversion”
7-9                         History of the Attic V̅ system
Ch. 14: 1-7            C voicing assimilation; more on s developments; the development of TL and TN sequences; Grassmann’s Law; assibilation of t; treatments of Ci̯, Li̯,  Ni̯, si̯; treatment of Tu̯ and su̯; minor assimilations and dissimilations.
Ch 15: 1-11           Nominal categories; PIE sg. case endings
Ch 16: 1-9             PIE pl. and du. case endings
Ch. 17:
1-7                        PIE and Greek o-stems (“thematics”)
8-12                      PIE *-eh₂- stems
12-14                    Greek ā-stems
14-17                    PIE *-ih₂/-i̯eh₂- stems and Greek -i̯ā̆-stems
17-27                    PIE and Greek T- and R-stems
28-33                    PIE and Greek adjectives
Ch. 22: 1-10          PIE and Greek verbal stems: aorist and present
Ch. 23:
1-7                        PIE and Greek verbal stems: perfect; Greek future
8-14                      PIE and Greek moods
Ch. 24: 1-5           PIE and Greek participles, verbal adjectives, infinitives
Ch. 25: 1-17         PIE verbal semantics; morphology of the PIE verb system; personal endings

Note: a good deal of the PIE morphological treatment overlaps with the Latin Outline.

Appendices: Preparing for the “Q”: Interdisciplinary Classics – “Capsule Lists”

Preparing for the “Q”:

As a written exam designed to test knowledge of secondary literature in Classics, the “Q” Examination in interdisciplinary Classics resembles that in classical archaeology art, and the second part of the Q in linguistics (for both, see above). The reading list will combine the capsule lists from three concentrations; for the capsule lists, see below. The exam comprises a list of ca. six to eight questions, from which you will choose to answer three by means of short essays (three hours total, or roughly one hour per essay). For guidance on preparing for the exam, see especially under classical archaeology and art, above; the remarks there apply also, mutatis mutandis, to the “Q” in interdisciplinary Classics.

Ancient History

Books

Ando, Clifford. Imperial ideology and provincial loyalty in the Roman Empire (Berkeley 2000).

Bryen, Ari Z. Violence in Roman Egypt: A Study in Legal Interpretation (Philadelphia 2013).

Clark, Elizabeth A. History, Theory, Text: Historians and the Linguistic Turn (Cambridge, MA 2004).

Connelly, Joan Breton. Portrait of a Priestess: Women and Ritual in Ancient Greece (Princeton, NJ 2007).

Horden, Peregrine & Nicholas Purcell. The Corrupting Sea: A Study of Mediterranean History (Oxford 2000).

Isaac, Benjamin. The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity. New ed. (Princeton, NJ 2006).

Kosmin, Paul J. Time and its adversaries in the Seleucid empire (Cambridge, MA 2018).

Ober, Josiah. The Rise and Fall of Classical Greece (Princeton, NJ 2015).

Russell, Amy. The politics of public space in Republican Rome (Cambridge 2016)

Scheid, John. The Gods, the State, and the Individual: Reflections on Civic Religion in Rome (Philadelphia 2015).

Strauss, Barry. The Trojan War: A New History (New York, NY 2006).

Papers

Arthur, Marilyn. “Review Essay: Classics.” Signs 2/2 (1976): 382-403. [on women in ancient Greece and Rome]

Brown, Peter. “The rise and function of the holy man in late antiquity.” Journal of Roman Studies 61 (1971): 80-101 [with Brown, Peter. “The rise and function of the holy man in late antiquity, 1971-1997.” Journal of Early Christian Studies 6 (1998): 353-376].

Cameron, Averil. “The ‘long’ late antiquity: a late twentieth-century model.” In Classics in progress. Edited by Timothy Peter Wiseman, 165-191 (Oxford 2002).

Cartledge, Paul. “Raising Hell: The Helot Mirage – A Personal Re-View.” In Helots and Their Masters in Laconia and Messenia. Edited by Nini Luraghi and Susan E. Alcock, 12-30 (Washington, DC 2003).

Eberle, Lisa Pilar and Le Quéré, Enora. “Landed traders, trading agriculturalists ?: land in the economy of the Italian diaspora in the Greek East.” Journal of Roman Studies 107 (2017): 27-59.

Hanson, Victor Davis, “The Status of Ancient Military History: Traditional Work, Recent Research, and On-going Controversy.” Journal of Military History 6 (1999): 379–413.

Lavan, Myles. “The Spread of Roman Citizenship, 14-212 CE: Quantification in the Face of High Uncertainty.” Past and Present 230/1 (2016): 3-46.

Levin-Richardson, Sarah. “Fututa sum hic: Female Subjectivity and Agency in Pompeian Sexual Graffiti.” The Classical Journal 108/3 (2013): 319-345.

Ma, John. “Hellenistic honorific statues and their inscriptions.” In Art and inscriptions in the ancient world. Edited by Newby, Zahra and Leader-Newby, Ruth E., 203-220 (Cambridge 2007).

Manning, Sturt W. “The Roman World and Climate: Context, Relevance of Climate Change, and Some Issues.” In The ancient Mediterranean environment between science and history. Edited by William V. Harris, 103-170 (Leiden 2013).

Morris, Ian. “Burial and Ancient Society after Ten Years.” Travaux de La Maison de l’Orient Méditerranéen 27/1 (1998): 21–36.

Morris, Ian. “The Greater Athenian State.” In The Dynamics of Ancient Empires. Edited by Ian Morris and Walter Scheidel, 99-177 (Oxford 2009).

Mouritsen, Henrik. “Freedmen and Decurions: Epitaphs and Social History in Imperial Italy,” Journal of Roman Studies 95 (2005): 38-63.

Murray, Oswyn. “Cities of Reason.” European Journal of Sociology 28/2 (1987): 325–46.

Noreña, Carlos F. “The social economy of Pliny's correspondence with Trajan.” American Journal of Philology 128/2 (2007): 239-277.

Padilla Peralta, Dan-el. “Slave religiosity in the Roman middle republic.” Classical Antiquity 36/2 (2017): 317-369.

Scheidel, Walter. “Helot Numbers: A Simplified Model.” In Helots and Their Masters in Laconia and Messenia. Edited by Nini Luraghi and Susan E. Alcock, 240-247 (Washington, DC 2003).

Woolf, Greg. “Becoming Roman, staying Greek: culture, identity and the civilizing process in the Roman east.” Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 40 (1994) 116-143.

Ancient Philosophy

Some useful collections of primary texts (some only in translation):

Kirk, Raven and Schofield (eds.), The Presocratic Philosophers 2nd ed. (Cambridge 2007)

Gagarin and Woodruff (eds.), Early Greek Political Thought from Homer to the Sophists (Cambridge 1995)

Cooper and Hutchinson (eds.) Plato Complete Works (Hackett 1997)

Ross (ed., rev. Barnes), Aristotle, Complete Works (Princeton 1984)

Long and Sedley, Hellenistic Philosophy 2 vols. (Cambridge 1987)

Secondary sources to orient a student of ancient Greek and Roman philosophy (these titles have been selected because they are either introductory or especially innovative):

Presocratics and sophists

Barnes, The Presocratic Philosophers (Routledge 1982)

Sassi, The Beginnings of Philosophy in Greece (Princeton 2018)

Plato

Irwin, Plato’s Moral Theory (1977) or Plato’s Ethics (Oxford 1995)

Kamtekar, Plato’s Moral Psychology (Oxford, 2018)

Nussbaum, Fragility of Goodness Part II (Cambridge 1986)

Annas and Rowe, New Perspectives on Plato, Modern and Ancient. (Center for Hellenic Studies Colloquia, 6 [2002])

Aristotle

Meyer, Aristotle on Moral Responsibility (Oxford 2011)

Broadie, Ethics with Aristotle (Oxford 1991)

Hellenistic Philosophy

Commentaries in Long and Sedley, Hellenistic Philosophy vol. 1 (Cambridge 1987) are an excellent starting point.

Epicureans

Warren, “Death and Deprivation” chapter 2 in his Facing Death: Epicurus and his Critics (Oxford 2004)

Sedley, Lucretius and the Transformation of Greek Wisdom (Oxford 1998)

Asmis, Elizabeth. ‘Epicurean empiricism’ in J. Warren (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Epicureanism (Cambridge 2009) 84-104.

Asmis Elizabeth, ‘Epicurean poetics’ in D. Obbink (ed.), Philodemus and Poetry: Poetic Theory and Practice in Lucretius, Philodemus, and Horace (Oxford 1995); repr. in A. Laird (ed.), Oxford Readings in Classical Studies: Ancient Literary Criticism (Oxford 2006) 238-66.

Stoics

Brennan, The Stoic Life (Oxford 2002)

Klein, Jacob, 2021, ‘Desire and Impulse in Epictetus and the Older Stoics,’ Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie, 103(2): 221–51.

Klein, ‘The Stoic argument from oikeiosis,’ Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 50: 143-200.

Long, Anthony, ‘Representation and the self’ in his Stoic Studies (Cambridge 1996) 264-85.

Frede, Michael, ‘Stoic Epistemology’, in Keimpe Algra, Jonathan Barnes, Jaap Mansfeld & Malcolm Schofield (eds.), The Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy (Cambridge 1999) 295-322.
         
Edwards, Catherine, ‘Free yourself! Slavery, freedom and the self in Seneca’s Letters’, in S. Bartsch & D. Wray (eds.), Seneca and the Self (Cambridge 2009) 139-59.

Inwood, Brad, ‘Seneca on Freedom and Autonomy’, in his Reading Seneca (Oxford 2005) 302-21.

Magrin, Sara, ‘Nature and Utopia in Epictetus’ Theory of Oikeiôsis,’ Phronesis, 63 (2018), 293-350.

Long, Anthony, ‘Stoic readings of Homer’ in Lamberton & Keaney (eds), Homer's Ancient Readers: The Hermeneutics of Greek Epic's Earliest Exegetes (Princeton 1992) 41-66.

Skeptics

Burnyeat and Frede (eds.) The Original Sceptics: A Controversy (Hackett 1997)

Brittain, Charles & Peter Osorio, ‘Ciceronian dialogue’, ch. 2 in Atkins & Benatouil (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Cicero’s Philosophy (2021)

Striker, Gisela, ‘Sceptical Strategies’, in M. Schofield, M. Burnyeat and J. Barnes (eds.), Doubt and Dogmatism (Oxford 1980)

Later Platonists

Brittain, ‘Plato and Platonism’, in Fine (ed.), Oxford Handbook on Plato 2nd ed. (Oxford 2019), 669-95.

Emilsson, Eyfi, Plotinus, (Routledge 2017)

Caluori, Damian Plotinus on the Soul (Cambridge 2015)

Remes, Pauliina, ‘The rational self and its knowledge of itself’ ch. 3 in her Plotinus on Self: The Philosophy of the ‘We’ (Cambridge 2007) 125-75.

Optionally, for a student interested in a particular philosophical topic, some important discussions across multiple authors/periods:

Annas, The Morality of Happiness (Oxford 1993)

Fine, The Possibility of Inquiry: Meno’s Paradox from Socrates to Sextus (Oxford 2014)

Sedley, Creationism and its Critics in Antiquity (University of California 2007)

Allen, Inference from Signs: Ancient debates about the nature of evidence (Oxford 2001)

Frede, A Free Will (University of California 2011)

Classical Archaeology and Art

Monographs

Alcock, S. 1993. Graecia Capta: The Landscapes of Roman Greece. Cambridge.

Broodbank, C. 2013. The Making of the Middle Sea. Oxford.

Finley, M.I. 1999. The Ancient Economy. Updated edition. Berkeley (with foreword).

Horden, P., and N. Purcell. 2000. The Corrupting Sea: A Study of Mediterranean History. Oxford.

Marvin, M. 2008. The Language of the Muses: The Dialogue between Greek and Roman Sculpture. Los Angeles.

Morris, I. 1987. Burial and Ancient Society: The Rise of the Greek City-State. Cambridge.

Neer, R. 2010. The Emergence of the Classical Style in Greek Sculpture. Chicago.

Nevett, L.C. 1999. House and Society in the Ancient Greek World. Cambridge.

Trigger, B.G. 2006. A History of Archaeological Thought. 2nd edition. Cambridge.

Trimble, J. 2011. Women and Visual Replication in Roman Imperial Art and Culture. Cambridge.

Essays

Alcock, S.E., et al. 2005. “Reading the Landscape: Survey Archaeology and the Hellenistic Oikoumene.” In A Companion to the Hellenistic World, edited by A. Erskine, 354-372. Malden, MA.

Hamilakis, Y, and E. Yalouri. 1999. “Sacralizing the Past: The Cults of Archaeology in Modern Greece.” Archaeological Dialogues 6 (1999): 115-135.

Hartmann, A. 2013. “Cui vetustas fidem faciat: Inscriptions and Other Material Relics of the Past in Graeco-Roman Antiquity.” In Inscriptions and Their Uses in Greek and Latin Literature, edited by P. Liddel and P. Low, 33-64. Oxford.

Herzfeld, M. 2005. “Practical Mediterraneanism: Excuses for Everything, from Epistemology to Eating.” In Rethinking the Mediterranean, edited by W.V. Harris. Oxford.

Hodder, I. 2011. “Human-Thing Entanglement: Towards an Integrated Archaeological Perspective.” JRAI 17: 154-177.

Johnson, M.H. 2012. “Phenomenological Approaches in Landscape Archaeology.” Annual Review of Anthropology 41: 269-284.

Kindt, J. 2009. “Polis Religion: A Critical Appreciation,” Kernos 22: 9-34.

McCormick, M., et al. 2012. “Climate Change during and after the Roman Empire: Reconstructing the Past from Scientific and Historical Evidence.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 43: 169-220.

Meskell, L. 2007. “Archaeologies of Identity.” In The Archaeology of Identities: A Reader, edited by T. Insoll, 23-43. London.

Morris, I. 2003. “Mediterraneanization.” Mediterranean Historical Review 18: 30-55.

Neer, R. 2005. “Connoisseurship and the Stakes of Style.” Critical Inquiry 32: 1-26.

Osborne, R. 2007. “Sex, Agency, and History: The Case of Athenian Painted Pottery.” In Art’s Agency and Art History, edited by R. Osborne and J. Tanner, 179-198. Malden, MA.

de Polignac, F. 1994. “Mediation, Competition, and Sovereignty: The Evolution of Rural Sanctuaries in Geometric Greece.” In Placing the Gods: Sanctuaries and Sacred Space in Ancient Greece, edited by S. Alcock and R. Osborne, 247-261. Oxford.

Pollard, A.M., and P. Bray. 2007. “A Bicycle Made for Two? The Integration of Scientific Techniques into Archaeological Interpretation.” Annual Review of Anthropology 36: 245-259.

Renfrew, C. 1980. “The Great Tradition versus the Great Divide: Archaeology as Anthropology?” American Journal of Archaeology 84: 287-298.

Silliman, S.W. 2015. “A Requiem for Hybridity? The Problem with Frankensteins, Purées and Mules.” Journal of Social Archaeology 15: 277-298.

Tartaron, T.F. 2008. “Aegean Prehistory as World Archaeology: Recent Trends in the Archaeology of Bronze Age Greece.” Journal of Archaeological Research 16: 83-161.

Trümper, M. 2012. “Gender and Space, ‘Public’ and ‘Private.’” In A Companion to Women in the Ancient World, edited by S.L. James and S. Dillon, 288-303. Malden, MA.

Versluys, M.J. 2014. “Understanding Objects in Motion: An Archaeological Dialogue on Romanization.” Archaeological Dialogues 21: 1-20 (with responses).

Van Dommelen, P. 2012. “Colonialism and Migration in the Ancient Mediterranean.” Annual Review of Anthropology 41: 393-409.

Classical Philology and Literature

Braund, Susanna Morton. Understanding Latin Literature. Second edition. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, 2017.

DuBois, Page. Sappho Is Burning. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Fantham, Elaine. Roman Literary Culture: from Cicero to Apuleius. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

Fantuzzi, Marco, and R. L Hunter. Tradition and Innovation in Hellenistic Poetry. Cambridge, England; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Feeney, D. C. Beyond Greek: The Beginnings of Latin Literature. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2016.

Foley, Helene P. Female Acts in Greek Tragedy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001.

Ford, Andrew Laughlin. The Origins of Criticism: Literary Culture and Poetic Theory in Classical Greece. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2002.

Hinds, Stephen. Allusion and Intertext: Dynamics of Appropriation in Roman Poetry. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Hunter, R. L. On Coming After: Studies in Post-Classical Greek Literature and Its Reception. Berlin; New York: Walter de Gruyter, 2008.

Jong, Irene J. F. de. Narratology and Classics: A Practical Guide. Oxford University Press, 2014.

Keith, Alison. Engendering Rome: Women in Latin Epic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Kurke, Leslie. Coins, Bodies, Games, and Gold: the Politics of Meaning in Archaic Greece. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1999.

Martin, Richard P. The Language of Heroes: Speech and Performance in the Iliad. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1989.

Reynolds, L. D, and N. G Wilson. Scribes and Scholars: a Guide to the Transmission of Greek and Latin Literature. Fourth edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

Roberts, Michael. The Jeweled Style: Poetry and Poetics in Late Antiquity. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1989.

Segal, Erich. Roman Laughter: the Comedy of Plautus. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Vernant, Jean-Pierre, and Pierre Vidal-Naquet. Myth and Tragedy in Ancient Greece. 1St paperback ed., rev. New York: Zone Books, 1990.

West, M. L. Textual Criticism and Editorial Technique Applicable to Greek and Latin Texts. Stuttgart: B. G. Teubner, 1973.

Whitmarsh, Tim. The Second Sophistic. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Winkler, John J, and Froma I Zeitlin. Nothing to Do with Dionysos?: Athenian Drama in Its Social Context. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1990.

Greek and Latin Languages and Linguistics

Books

Adams, J. N. 2013. Social Variation and the Latin Language.

Allen, W. Sidney. 1987. Vox Graeca: a Guide to the Pronunciation of Classical Greek. 3rd ed.

Allen, W. Sidney. 1989. Vox Latina: a Guide to the Pronunciation of Classical Latin. 2nd ed.

Fortson, Benjamin W. 2010. Indo-European Language and Culture: an Introduction. 2nd ed.

Goldstein, D. M. 2016. Classical Greek Syntax: Wackernagel’s Law in Herodotus.

Löfstedt, E. 1942. Syntactica: Studien und Beiträge zur historischen Syntax des Lateins.

Nussbaum, Alan J. 1998. Two Studies in Greek and Homeric Linguistics.  

Rix, Helmut. 1992. Historische Grammatik des Griechischen: Laut- und Formenlehre. 2nd ed.

Wackernagel, Jacob. 2009. Lectures on Syntax: with Special Reference to Greek, Latin, and Germanic. Edited by D. R. Langslow.

Weiss, Michael. 2020. Outline of the Historical and Comparative Grammar of Latin. 2nd ed.

Articles

Cowgill, Warren. 1960. “Greek ou and Armenian oc’.” Language 36: 347–50.

Cowgill, Warren. 1978. “The Source of Latin vīs ‘thou wilt’.” Die Sprache 24: 25–44.

Forssman, Bernhard. 1975. “Zur Lautform der Lesbischen Lyrik.” Münchener Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft 33: 15–37.

García Ramón, José Luis. 2009. “On the Genetic Classification of Ancient Greek Dialects.” In Studies in Greek Linguistics, 219–36.

García Ramón, José Luis. 2016. “Il Greco miceneo.” In Perna, Massimo, and Maurizio Del Freo. 2016. Manuale Di Epigrafia Micenea: Introduzione Allo Studio Dei Testi in Lineare B, 211–44.

Jamison, Stephanie W. 1999. “Penelope and the Pigs: Indic Perspectives on the Odyssey.” Classical Antiquity 18: 227–72.

Jasanoff, Jay and Alan Nussbaum. 1996. “Word Games: The Linguistic Evidence in Black Athena.” In M. Lefkowitz and Guy McLean (eds.), Black Athena Revisted, 177–205.

Morpurgo Davies Anna. 1965. “A Note on Thessalian.” Glotta 43: 235–51.

Nikolaev, Alexander. 2015. “Ten Thousand Eyes: The Story of Ἄργος Μυριωπός” Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies 55: 812–31.

Nussbaum, Alan. 1994. “Five Latin verbs from a root *leik-.” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 96: 161–90.

Nussbaum, Alan. 2017. “The Homeric Formulary Template and a Linguistic Innovation in the Epics.” In Dieter Gunkel and Olav Hackstein (eds.), Language and Meter, 267–318.

Risch, Ernst. 1954. “Die Gliederung der griechischen Dialekte in neuer Sicht.” Museum Helveticum 12: 61–73.

Vine, Brent. 2008. “On the etymology of Latin tranquillus“ International Journal of Diachronic Linguistics and Linguistic Reconstruction 5:1–24.

Watkins, Calvert. 1976. “Observations on the “Nestor’s Cup” Inscription.” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 80: 25–40.

Weiss, Michael. 2017.An Italo-Celtic Divinity and a Common Sabellic Sound Change” Classical Antiquity 36.2: 370–89.

Appendices: The Classical Language Examination for the concentration in Classical Archaeology and Art

Greek

Euripides: Bacchae

Hesiod: Theogony

Herodotus: I

Homer: Iliad 22-24, Odyssey 20-22

Lysias: I, VII, XII, XXIV

Plato: Symposium

Sophocles: OT

Thucydides: II

Xenophon: Symposium

Latin

Apuleius: Cupid & Psyche

Catullus: 1-20 selected, 63, 64

Caesar: Bellum Civile III

Cicero: In Catilinam I & III, Selected letters [3, 6, 9, 11, 13, 15, 18, 20, 21, 23, 24, 26, 29, 45, 48, 51, 52, 63, 66, 70, 73 in Shackleton Bailey, Cicero: Select Letters (Cambridge 1980) = A1.2, A1.13, F14.2, A4.5, F5.12, F7.1, F7.5, F7.6, A5.1, F13.1, F15.1, F15.6, F9.18, F9.26, F7.26, F5.16, A13.52, A14.1, A15.11, A16.6].

Juvenal: I

Livy: I

Ovid: Metamorphoses I

Petronius: Cena

Sallust: Catilina

Tacitus: Agricola

Virgil: Aeneid 9-12

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